An arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a tangle of abnormal blood vessels connecting arteries and veins. They can develop anywhere in the body but are most common in the brain.
A pituitary adenoma is a benign tumour of the anterior pituitary gland. The pituitary is a pea-sized gland located at the base of the brain that normally produces hormones which control other glands in the body.
A Meningioma is a common type of brain tumour arising from the tissue lining the brain and spinal cord (meninges). Most meningiomas are benign tumours, but a small proportion can be malignant (cancerous). Although most meningiomas are slow growing, they can still cause symptoms by exerting pressure on the brain and spinal cord.
Also known as Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy or Graves’ Disease, thyroid eye disease (TED) is a form of inflammation in the tissues surrounding the eye. The volume of the muscles controlling eye movement and the fat and connective tissues behind the eye is increased due to proliferation of cells, inflammation and the accumulation of molecules known as glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in these tissues.
Vestibular Schwannomas, also called Acoustic Neuromas, are benign growths that occur along the nerve that connects the inner ear to the brain (vestibulocochlear nerve). This nerve controls hearing and balance. They arise from the Schwann cells, which are cells that surround the nerves. Vestibular schwannomas can cause loss of hearing or problems with balance.